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GENERAL AWARENESS

Posted by keralaofficial on May 22, 2011


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Q:1 What is financial inclusion ?

(1) To provide a permanent employment to the unemployed

(2) To provide a 100 days job to all those who are in need of a job

(3) To provide banking services to all those living in remote areas

(4) To ensure that all financial transactions amounting Rs. 5,000/- and above are done through banks.

(5) To provide finances for all.

Q: 2 Recently the term 3G was very much in news and even a conference on it was organized in India. What is the letter ‘G’ denotes in 3G ?

(1) Grade

(2) Group

(3) Global

(4) Guild

(5) Generation

Q: 3 Some major banks and financial institutions in various Western countries were to wind up their business and/ or declare themselves in financial problems during last few years. This trend is technically known as _

(1) Devaluation

(2) Deformation

(4) Political backdrop

(5) Globalisation

Q: 4 Which of the following International sports events was organized in Delhi in October 2010 in which several countries participated ?

(1) Asian Games

(2) World Cup Cricket Tournament

(3) Asian Hockey Tournament

(4) Commonwealth Games

(5) None of these

Q: 5 Exporters in India get insurance cover and risk cover from which of the following organizations?

(1) SIOBI

(2) NABARD

(3) ECGC

(4) RBI

(5) None of these

Q: 6 Which of the following places in India does not have a Stock Exchange ?

(1) Kolkata

(2) Ahmedabad

(3) Mumbai

(4) Delhi

(5) Udaipur

Q.7 Hillary Clinton who was in India recently is the U.S. Secretary of–

(1) Commerce

(2) State

(3) Treasury

(4) Defence

(5) None of these

Q.8 If Indian Banking industry had demonstrated its resilience to external shocks in 2008-09, the credit goes to —

(A) Policies of the RBI & the Govt. of India

(C) Foreign aid/investments to Indian companies

(1) Only (A) (2j Only (B) (3) Only (C)

Q: 9 Tembhli village which was in news is in —

(1) Bihar

(2) Rajasthan

(3) Orissa

(4) West Bengal

(5) Maharashtra

Q:10 Rohan Bopanna who represented Indian in an international event is a—-

(1) Billiards Player

(2) Golf Player

(3) Chess Player

(4) Table Tennis Player

(5) Lawn Tennis Player

Q:11 AlBA Women’s World Boxing Championship was organized in September 2010 in —

(I) Rome

(2) New Delhi

(3) London

(4) Vienna

(5) Barbados

Q: 12 Mr. A. K. Antony a Union Minister in the Indian Cabinet recently signed an agreement with South Korea. This means the agreement is for the Cooperation in the field of–

(1) Agriculture

(2) Rural Development

(3) Defence

(4) Steel & Iron

(5) None of these

Q: 13 Sir Mota Singh who was Knighte by the Queen Elizabeth II earlier this year is—

(1) First Sikh Judge in UK

(2) first Sikh Minister in UK

(3) First Indian to become Vice Chancellor in Cambridge

(4) First Indian to become Governor of a State in USA

(5) None of these

Q.14 ‘Ayodhya’ which was in news recently is a place in—

(1) Madhya Pradesh

(2) Bihar

(3) Rajasthan

(4) Jharkhand

(5) Uttar Pradesh

Q.15 Which of the following is the name of a private sector Bank in India?

(1) IDBI Bank

(2) Axis Bank

(3) Corporation Bank

(4) UCO Bank

(5) All are Private Banks

Q.16. The Govt. of India does no! provide any direct financial assistance to which of the following schemes?

(1) Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee scheme

(2) Rural Health Mission

(3) Indira Aawas Yojana

(4) Jeevan Sathi Yojana

(5) Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana

Q.17. What does the letter’S’ denotes in ‘AFSPA’ ar abbreviation we very often see in newspapers?

(1) Slow

(2) Special

(3) State

(4) Solid

(5) Sovereign

Q.18. Which of the following terms is used in banking and finance?

(1) Abiotic

(2) Demand Deposit

(3) Fat scales

(4) A diabetic

(5) Cathode

Q.19. Which of the following is a food crop?

(1) Maize

(2) Cotton

(3) Palm

(4) Jute

(5) Jatropha

Q.20. Vedanta Alumina is a company operating in the area of —-

(1) Shipping

(2) Mining

(3) Cement

(4) Textiles

(5) Banking

Q.21. Names of which of the following rates/ratios cannot be seen in financial newspapers?

(1) Bank Rate

(2) Repo Rate

(3) Cash Reserve Ratio

(4) Pulse Rate

(5) Statutory Liquidity Ratio

Q.22. An individual visiting UAE will have to make his/her payments in which of the following currencies?

(1) Dirham

(2) Taka

(3) Baht

(4) Peso

(5) Dinar

Q.23. Who, amongst the following is NOT a famous writer?

(1) Sania Mirza

(2) V. S. Naipaul

(3) Chetan Bhagat

(4) Khushwant Singh

(5) Namita Gokhale

Q.24. ‘Peepli Live’ is a film directed by —

(I) Anusha Rizvi

(2) Aamir Khan

(3) Kiran Rao

(4) David Dhawan

(5) None of these

Q.25. Which of the following is the Chemical name of the salt we use in our kitchen?

(1) Calcium Carbonate

(2) Calcium Chloride

(3) Sodium Carbonate

(4) Sodium Chloride

(5) Ammonium Sulphate

Q.26. The judges of the Supreme Court of India now retire at the age of—

(1) 58 years

(2) 60 years

(3) 62 years

(4) 65 years

(5) 68 years

Q.27. Operation New Dawn is the beginning of stability in—

(1) Afghanistan

(2) Iran

(3) Sudan

(4) Sri Lanka

(5) Iraq

Q.28. Which of the following books’ is written by Kiran Desai ?

(1) A house for Mr. Biswas

(2) 3 Mistakes of My Life

(3) A Tale of Two Sisters

(4) The Inheritance of Loss

(5) Tale of Two Cities

Q.29. Jimena Na”;’arrete who was crowned Miss Universe 2010 is from —

(I) Mexico

(2) Venezuela

(3) Brazil

(4) New Zealand

(5) Italy

Q.30. India has an agreement with USA for producing energy in the form of—

(1) Hydraulic

(2) Thermal

(3) Nuclear

(4) Solar

(5) All of these forms

Q. 31 Which of the following is an economic term?

(1) Plaintiff

(2) Bunker Blaster

(3) Deflation

(4) Lampoon

(5) Zero Hour

Q.32. Which of the following awards is given to sports persons in India?

(1) Shantiswarup Bhatnagar Awards

(2) Arjuna Award

(3) Kalidas Samman

(4) Saraswati Samman

(5) None of these

Q.33. Which of the following is the trophy/cup associated with the game of cricket?

(1) Derby

(2) Merdeka Cup

(3) Santosh Trophy

(4) Duleep Trophy

(5) Durand Cup

Q.34. Who amongst the following can take benefit of the Social Security Fund established by the Govt. ofIndia for unorganized workers? .

(1) Primary school teacher

(2) Employee of Sugar Factory

(3) Textile Mazdoor

(4) Rickshaw Puller

(5) Clerk in a factory

Q.35. Shushil Kumar who won a Gold Medal at an international event is a famous—

(1) Wrestling champion

(2) Golf player

(3) Table Tennis Player

(4) Weight lifter

(5) None of these

Q.36. In case a major war breaks out between two nations, which of the following organizations/agencies will be seen in the battle field, in addition to the armies of the fighting parties?

(1) WTO

(2) Red Cross

(3) CARE

(4) OPEC

(5) All of these

Q.37. Which of the following is the abbreviated name associated with food security?

(1) ASHA

(2) PDS

(3) WTO

(4) OPEC

(5) NPA

Q.38. Which of the following is a good and rich source of vitamin ‘C’ ?

(1) Milk

(2) Radish

(3) Mango

(4) Lemon Juice

(5) Banana

Q.39. Who amongst the following Indian Prime Ministers was honoured Posthumously by the Govt. of Bangladesh for his/her contributions to the independence of the nation?

(1) Rajiv Gandhi

(2) Jawaharlal Nehru

(3) Indira Gandhi

(4) Lai Bahadur Shastri

(5) None of these

Q.40. Who amongst the following was never a Governor of the RBI?

(1) Bimal Jalan

(2) Y. V. Reddy

(3) Arup Roy Choudhury

(4) C. Rangarajan

(5) D. Subbarao

Answer:

(1) 3 (2) 5 (3) 3 (4) 10 (5) 5 (6) 5 (7) 4 (8) 1 (9) 5 (10) 5 (11) 5 (12) 3 (13) 1 (14) 5 (15) 2 (16) 1 (17) 2 (18) 2 (19) 4 (20) 2 (21) 4 (22) 1 (23) 1 (24) 1 (25) 4 (26) 4 (27) 1 (28) 4 (29) 1 (30) (31) 3 (32) 2 (33) 4 (34) 4 (35) 5 (36) 2 (37) 2 (38) 4 (39) 3 (40) 3
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Marketing Aptitude and Computer Knowledge

Q. 1. An email account includes a storage area, often called a(n) __
(1) attachment
(2) hyperlink
(3) mailbox
(4) IP address
(5) None of these

Q. 2. Data becomes __ when it is presented in a format that people can understand and use.
(1) processed
(2) graphs
(3) information
(4) presentation
(5) None of these

Q.3. A set of computer programs that helps a computer monitor itself and function more efficiently isajan __
(1) Windows
(2) System Software
(3) DBMS
(4) Application Software
(5) None of these

Q. 4. An area of a computer that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed is __
(1) CPU
(2) Memory
(3) Storage
(4) File
(5) None of these

Q.5. A __ is a microprocessor-based computing device.
(1) personal computer
(2) mainframe
(3) workstation
(4) server
(5) None of these

Q. 6. You use a(n) __ , such as a keyboard or mouse, to input information.
(1) output device
(2) input device
(3) storage device
(4) processing device
(5) None of these

Q.7. The term __ designates equipment that might be added to a computer system to enhance its functionality.

(1) digital device
(2) system add-on
(3) disk pack
(4) peripheral device
(5) None of these

Q. 8. The instructions that tell a computer how to carry out the processing tasks are referred to as computer __
(1) programs
(2) processors
(3) input devices
(4) memory modules
(5) None of these

Q. 9. RAM can be thought of as the __ for the computer’s processor.
(1) factory
(2) operating room
(3) waiting room
(4) planning room
(5) None of these

Q. 10. C, BASIC, COBOL, and Java are examples of __ languages.
(1) low-level
(2) computer
(3) system programming
(4) high-level
(5) None of these

Q.11. __ is the ability of a device to “jump” directly to the requested data.
(1) Sequential access
(2) Random access
(3) Quick access
(4) All of the above
(5) None of these

Q.12. The __ is the amount of data that a storage device can move from the storage medium to the Computer per second.
(1) data migration rate
(2) data digitizing rate
(3) data transfer rate
(4) data access rate
(5) None of these

Q.13. A __ converts all the statements in a program in a single batch and the resulting collection of instructions is placed in a new file.
(1) converter
(2) compiler
(3) interpreter
(4) instruction
(5) None of these

Q.14. One thousand bytes is a __
(1) kilobyte
(2) megabyte
(3) gigabyte
(4) terabyte
(5) None of these

Q.15. ‘Benchmark’ means __
(1) Benches for customers to sit
(2) Benches for salesmen to sit
(3) Products displayed on a bench
(4) Set standards
(5) All of the above

Q. 16 A Call Centre is __
(1) a meeting place for DSAs
(2) a Training Centre for DSAs
(3) a meeting place for customers
(4) Data Centre
(5) a back office set up where customer queries are answered

Q .17. The sequence of a sales process is __
(1) Lead generation, Call, Presentation & Sale
(2) Sale, Presentation, Lead generation & Call
(3) Presentation, Lead generation, Sale & Call
(4) Lead Generation, Call, Sale & Presentation
(5) There is no sequence required

Q.18. Home loans are granted to –
(1) Individuals
(2) Institutions
(3) Builders
(4) All of these
(5) None of these

Q.19. To ‘Close a Call’ means __
(1) ‘fo end the conversation
(2) To put the phone down
(3) To close the doors
(4) To clinch the sale
(5) To close the business

Q.20. A __ is an additional set of commands that the computer displays after you make a selection from the main menu.
(1) dialog box
(2) submenu
(3) menu selection
(4) All of the above
(5) None of these

Q.21. Information kept about a file includes —-
(1) print settings
(2) deletion date
(3) (1) & (2) only
(4) size
(5) None of these

Q.22. __ provides process and memory management services that allow two or more tasks, jobs, or programs to run simultaneously.
(1) Multitasking
(2) Multithreading
(3) Multiprocessing
(4) Multicomputing
(5) None of these

Q.23. The ALU performs __ operations.
(1) arithmetic
(2) ASCII
(3) algorithm-based
(4) logarithm-based
(5) None of these

Q. 24. A (n) __ is software that helps a computer control itself to operate efficiently and keep track of data.
(1) application system
(2) hardware system
(3) software system
(4) oprating system
(5) None of these

Q.25. ‘Customisation’ means __
(1) Tailor-made products for each customer
(2) Customers selling goods
(3) Tailor-made products for each staff
4) A selling process
(5) None of these

Q.26. A ‘Call’ in Marketing language means __
(1) Calling On a salesperson
(2) Calling on a customer
(3) Making a phone-call
(4) Telemarketing
(5) None of these

Q.27. Computers manipulate data in many ways, and this manipulation is called __
(1) upgrading
(2) processing
(3) batching
(4) utilizing
(5) None of these

Q.28. A Marketing Survey is required for __
(1) deciding marketing strategies
(2) deciding Product strategies
(3) deciding pricing strategies
(4) All of these
(5) None of these

Q.29. The Target Group for Education Loans is —-
(1) all colleges
(2) all parents
(3) research scholars
(4) meritorious students seeking higher education
(5) all of these

Q.30. Cross-selling means __
(1) Selling with a cross face
(2) Cross country marketing
(3) Selling other products to existing customers
(4) Selling to friends
(5) Selling to employees

Q.31. Market Segmentation is useful for—
(1) Preferential marketing
(2) Targeting existing clients
(3) Identifying prospects
(4) Knowing customers’ tastes
(5) All of the above

Q.32. The Target Group for Savings Deposit Accounts is __
(1) Newborn babies
(2) students
(3) parents
(4) businessman
(5) all of the above

Q. 33. Market Segmentation can be resorted to by means of __
(1) segmenting by age
(2) segmenting by income
(3) segmenting geographically
(4) all of these
(5) none of these

Q.34. The Target Group for a Car Loan is —
(1) all auto drivers
(2) all auto dealers
(3) all car owners
(4) any individual needing a car
(5) all of these

Q.35. Market information means —
(1) knowledge of industries
(2) knowledge of households
(3) knowledge of peers
(4) knowledge of customers’ tastes
(5) All of these

Q.36. Credit cards are used for –
(1) Cash withdrawals
(2) Purchase of air tickets
(3) Purchase of consumable items from retail outlets
(4) All of these
(5) None of these

Q.37. TheTarget Group for Agricultural Loans is __
(1) any farmer
(2) farm labourers
(3) any individual dealing in agricultural or related activity
(4) farmers’societies
(5) all of these

Q.38. The Target Group for Credit Cards is —-
(1) existing cardholders
(2) all graduates
(3) all minors
(4) individuals with taxable income
(5) all of these

Q.39. Market Segmentation means __
(1) segmenting the salesmen
(2) segmenting the employees
(3) segmenting the customers as per their Heeds
(4) segmenting the products
(5) All of these

Q. 40. A ‘Target Group’ means—
(1) a group of sellers
(2) a group of buyers
(3) a group of products
(4) a group of persons to whom sales should be focused
(5) all of these

Answer :

(1) 3 (2) 3 (3) 2 (4) 2 (5) 1 (6) 2 (7) 4 (8) 1 (9) 3 (10) 4 (11) 2 (12) 3 (13) 2 (14) 1 (15) 4 (16) 5 (17) 1 (18) 1 (19) 4 (20) 1 (21) 3 (22) 1 (23) 1 (24) 4 (25) 1 (26) 2 (27) 2 (28) 4 (29) 4 (30) 3 (31) 5 (32) 5 (33) 4 (34) 4 (35) 5 (36) 4 (37) 3 (38) 4 (39) 3 (40) 5
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General Awareness

(Exam Held 09-01-2011)

Q.1. Animal assisted therapy is employed in-
(1) operations
(2) ICU
(3) old age homes
(4) training animals
(5) natural healing

Q. 2. In broad gauge, the distance between the rail is-
(1) 1.00 meter
(2) 3 meters
(3) 1.67 meters
(4) 2.67 meters
(5) 0.76 meter

Q.3. Who is lndra Nooyi?
(1) CEO Coca Cola
(2) CFO Pepsi Co.
(3) Managing Director Nano Division
(4) India’s permanent representative to UNO
(5) None of these

Q.4. ET Now and CNBC TVI8, TV Channels essentially broadcast-
(1) English news
(2) classic English movies
(3) political events and news
(4) business and economic news
(5) all important national and international news in English

Q.5. Amongst the following sportsmen/women, who has won the first gold medal at Guangzhou Asian Games?
(1) Yuan Xiachao
(2) Wang Mingluen
(3) Zhu Oianward
(4) Takeshi Matsuda
(5) Wu Jingbiao

Q.6. The synagogue is generally –
(1) an epic
(2) a religion
(3) Jewish House of Prayer
(4) the Parsi temple
(5) a palace

Q.7. Deuce is a term used in-
(a) Polo (b) lawn tennis (c) badminton (d) boxing (e) Volley ball
(1) a, b, c (2) b, c, d (3) c, d, a (4) a, b, e (5) b, c, e

Q. 8. ISl is the intelligence agency of-
(1) United Kingdom
(2) United States of America
(3) Israel
(4) Pakistan
(5) India

Q.9. Air Traffic Controller’s job involves-
(a) control of air traffic in and within vicinity of airport
(b) control of movement of air traffic between altitude, sectors and control centres
(c) following established procedures and policies for air traffic control
(d) control of commercial airline flights according to government regulations
(e) to authorize and regulate commercial airline flights
(1) (a), (b)
(2) (b), (c)
(3) (a), (b), (c), (d)
(4) (a), (b), (c), (d), (e)
(5) (c), (d), (e)

Q.10 The eleventh ‘five year plan’ of India is for the five years ranging from-
(1) 2009-2014
(2) 2008-2013
(3) 2007 – 2012
(4) 2006 -2011
(5) none of these

Q.11 DSCR indicates the ability of a company to-
(1) meet its current liabilities
(3) meet its long term debt obligations
(4) raise further capital
(5) none of these

Q.12. An IPO is –
(1). initial price offered by a private limited company to its shareholders
(2) an offer by an unlisted company for sale of its shares for the first time to the public
(3) used to increase the share capital of an unlisted company
(4) a book building process
(5) none of these

Q.13 A decreasing current ratio indicates-
(1) a stable liquidity
(2) an increasing liquidity
(3) a strained liquidity
(4) satisfactory current solvency
(5) none of these

Q.14. Private equity investors, invest in a company based mainly on-
(1) the age of the company (2) the location of the company
(3) the activity undertaken-by the company
(4) the credibility and the valuation of the company
(5) the existing profitability of the company

Q.15. With which one of the following fields was Satyajit Ray associated?
(1) Films
(2) Sports
(3) Social work
(4) Drama
(5) Short Stories

Q.16. “Daniel Vettroi’ is captain of which one of the following teams?
(1) New Zealand Cricket Team
(2) South Africa Cricket Team
(3) New Zealand Basket Ball Team
(4) West Indies Cricket Team
(5) Australia Cricket Team

Q.17. Who amongst the following carried Indian Tricolour at Guangzhou Asian Games?
(1) Sania Mirza
(2) Saina Nehwal
(3) Gagart Narang
(4) Suranjay Singh
(5) Randhir Singh

Q.18. Financial ratio analysis of a company helps in understanding-
(a) the long term debt raissig capacity
(b) the short term solvency
(c) the reasons for fluctuafions in its stock prices
(d) the net worth of the company
(e) the profitability
(1)a, b, c,d (2) b, c, d (3) c, d,e, (4) c,a,b,d (5)a,b,d,e

Q.19. Human breath is visible in winter but not in summer because-
(1) the difference in outside pressure gives visibility to breath
(2) breath contains certain impurities and visible matters
(3) water vapour in breath condenses in cold air, making it visible
(4) breath has heat in it which evaporates in cold air giving visibility
(5) none of these

Q.20. Which of the following is/are not the names of Seven North-Eastern States?
(a) Jorhat (b) Manipur (c) Meghalaya (d) Agartala (e) Dimapur
(1) a, b, c (2) b, c, d (3) c, d, a (4) a, d, b (5) a, d, e

Q.21. According to a recent newspaper survey, which one of the following is the most preferred language for leisure reading among the Indian Youth?
(1) Hindi
(2) Marathi
(3) Bengali
(4) Telugu
(5) English

Q.22. Who is Dr. C. Rangarajan?
(1) Chairman, PMEAC
(2) Member, Planning Commission
(3) Chief Economist, IBA
(4) RBI Governor
(5) Member, Minority Commission

Q.23. Which of the following is an oilseed?
(1) Garlic
(2) Clove
(3) Cardamom
(4) Cumin Seed
(5) Mustard

Q. 24. The RBI reviews its credit and monetary policy at regular intervals and also in between What is the purpose of the same?
(A) To ensure that inflation does not cross the limit.
(B) To ensure that banks have enough liquidity.
(C) To ensure that cost of the fund does not reach a very high level.
(1) Only (A) (2) Only (B) (3) All (A), (B), (C) (4) Only (B) & (C) (5) None of these

Q. 25. The name of the white revolution is associated with —
(1) J. V. Narlikar
(2) J. C. Bose
(3) Kurien Verghese
(4) M. S. Swaminathan
(5) C. Rangarajan

Q.26. The cabinet committee recently approved the ‘IGMSY’ a scheme for the welfare of the people of India. Who amongst the following will get the benefit of the schame?
(1) Mothers and pregnant women
(2) Children upto 12 years of age
(3) Youth
(4) Old and Senior Citizens
(5) All the above

Q.27. The Govt. of India provides direct financial support to which of the following schemes?
(1) Jeevan Bharati Scheme
(2) ULIP
(3) Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana
(4) Packing Credit Guarantee Scheme
(5) All of the above

Q.28. Who amongst the following is a famous Urdu author / poet who received Jnanpith Award recently?
(1) Akhlaq Khan Shahryar
(2) ONV Kurup
(3) Khushwant Singh
(4) Krishna Sobti
(5) None of these

Q.29. Who amongst the following is the author of the Book “A Bend in the River” ?
(1) V.S. Naipaul
(2) Arun Shourie
(3) Octavia Paz
(4) Daniel Defoe
(5) Walter Scott

Q.30. Which of the following is called the pink city of India?
(1) Kolkata
(2) Lucknow
(3) Kota
(4) Hyderabad
(5) Jaipur

Q.31. Which of the following states got a new Chief Minister without new assembly elections?
(1) Goa
(2) Madhya Pradesh
(3) Jharkahnad
(4) Gujarat
(5) Delhi

Q.32. A two days National level conference/event was organized in Chandigarh in September 2010. Which was the conference/event?
(1) Miss India 2010′
(2) Asian Women Hockey Finals 2010
(3) ‘Conference of the Finance Ministers of SAARC
(4) National Rabi Conference
(5) None of these

Q.33. Which of the following Summits took place h Hanoi in October 2010?
(1) ASEAN Summit
(2) SAARC Summit
(3) G 20 summit
(4) G-8 Summit
(5) None of these

Q.34. The Reserve Bank does not have an office in –
(1) Kanpur
(2) Jaipur
(3) Lucknow
(4) Bhopal
(5) Gulbarga

Q.35. A Badminton player is supposed to know the meaning of the term-
(1) Bouncer
(2) Love
(3) LBW
(4) Punch
(5) Booster

Q.36. Who amongst the following is the receipientof the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Awart 2010?
(1) Ishant Sharma
(2) Hariom Singh
(3) M.S. Dhoni
(4) Sushil Kumar
(5) Saina Nehwal

Q.37. India extended a credit of US$250 million to which of the following countries, which will be used for infrastruclural development there? .
(1) China
(2) Pakistan
(3) Myanmar
(4) Nepal
(5) Sudan

Q.38. Which one of the following makes a case for intensive, modem farming?
(1) Higher output using organic method
(2) Remunerative price
(3) Cropping pattern
(4) Land acquisition for non-agricultural needs
(5) None of these

Q.39. In which one of the following States multi-thousand-foodgrain scam has recently been noticed by the High Court?
(1) M.P.
(2) Orissa
(3) Bihar
(4) Jharkhand
(5) U.P.

Q.40. Which one of the following is the objective of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) issued by the Government?
(1) To ensure that Companies take steps for rehabilitation of project affected people
(2) To ensure that Companies use some of their profits for educating the project affected people
(3) To ensure that Companies provide health care to project affected people
(4) To ensure that Companies take preventive measures to avoid environmental damage
(5) None of these

Q.41. A hockey player is supposed to know the. meaning of the term-
(1) Deaa Ball
(2) Bouncer
(3) LBW
(4) Penalty Corner
(5) Frozen Ball

Q.42. Which one of the following have provided bailout package to Ireland to deal with its debt crisis?
(1) EU only
(2) IMF only
(3) World Bank only
(4) Only (1) and (2) above
(5) All (1), (2) and (3) above

Q.43. Which one of the following Indian Company is the only company from India to be included in the Top Ten 2010 Value creators Global Ranking released by global management consulting firm BCG?
(1) RIL
(2) Tata Steel
(3) Bharti Airtel
(4) JSPL
(5) Bajaj Auto

Q.44 Which one of the following has launched guidebook on standards for exporters? .
(1) RBI
(2) SEBI
(3) IBA
(4) UNIDO
(5) UNESCO

Q.45. BIPA with Sudan comes into effect was the news in various newspapers recently. It is an agreement for-
(1) Investmept in a country
(2) Peaceful use of atomic power
(3) Allowing students to visit each other’s nation
(4) Allowing people to come for medical treatment
(5) To form an alliance with each other in case of a war

Q.46. In which one of the following sports Sandhya Rani Devi bagged Silver in Asiad 2010 Games
(1) Shooting
(2) Squash
(3) Taekwondo
(4) Ten-pin bowling
(5) Wushu

Q.47. Which of the following terms is normally NOT seen in the field of International Relations?
(1) Exchange Rate
(2) Free Trade
(3) MFN
(4) Alluvial Soil
(5) OECD

Q.48. According to mid term review of Indian economy, which one of the following segments will be the major contributor to GDP growth?
(1) Agriculture
(2) Industry
(3) Services
(4) Mining
(5) None of these

Q.49. Which of the following films directed by Aamir Khan was sent for OSCARs Award nominations from India? .
(1) Rang De Basanti
(2) Peepli Live
(3) Tare Zamin Par
(4) Lagan
(5) None of these

Q.50. In which one of the following states, population growth rate is lower than national average?
(1) Delhi
(2) Gujarat
(3) Chhattisgarh
(4) Himachal Pradesh
(5) Orissa

Answer:

(1) 3 (2) 3 (3) 2 (4) 5 (5) 1 (6) 3 (7) 5( 8) 4 (9) 2 (10) 3 (11) 3 (12) 1 (13)3 (14) 4 (15) 1 (16) 1 (17) 3 (18) 3 (19) 3 (20) 5 (21) 5 (22) 1 (23) 5 (24) 3 (25) 3
(26)1 (27)3 (28)1 (29)1 (30) 5 (31) 3 (32) 5 (33) 1 (34) 5 (35) 2 (36) 5 (37) 4 (38) 4 (39) 5 (40) 1 (41) 4 (42) 1 (43) 1 (44) 4 (45) 1 (46)5 (47) 4 (48)1 (49) 2 (50) 3
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Labels: GENERAL AWARENESS
Indian Bank probationary officers Exam 2011

GENERAL AWARENESS

Q.1 Which of the following carries out ‘Open Market Operations?
(1) Finance Ministry (2) External Affairs Ministry
(4) Planning Commission (5) Ministry of Commerce

Q. 2 Who among the folfowing Ministers will hold telecom portfolio in addition to his own portfolio till next reallotment?
(1) Kamal Nath (2) Kapil Sibal
(4) Mamta Banerjee (5) None of these

Q. 3 Under provisions of which one of the following Acts, the RBI issues directives to the Banks in India?
(1) RBI Act (2) Banking Regulation Act (3) Essential Commodities Act
(4) RBI and Banking Regulation Act (5) None of these

Q.4 On which one of the following ‘Head of Expenses’, the expenses of the Government of India are highest?
(1) Food subsidy (2) Fertilizer subsidy (3) Pradhan Mantri Gram SadakYojana
(4) Maintenance of national highways (5) Oil subsidy

Q.5 Which one of the following foreign agencies will assist the municipal agencies to improve quality of municipal schools through its School Excellence Programmes (SEP) ?
(1) IMF (2) UNDP (3) UNICEF (4) ADB (5) None of these

Q. 6 Which one of the following tools is used by RBI for selective credit control?
(1) It advises banks to lend against certain commodities
(2) It advises banks to recall the loans for advances against certain commodities
(3) It advises banks to charge higher rate of interest for advance against certain commodities
(4) It discourages certain kinds of lending by assigning higher risk weights to loans it deems undesirable
(5) None of these

Q.7 For which one of the following Loan Products ‘teaser loans’ are offered by Banks?

(1) Education Loans (2) Commercial Loans (3) Loans against security of gold
(4) Retail Trade Loans (5) Home Loans ,

Q. 8 The Commonwealth Games 2010 were held in Delhi from October 3 to 14, 2010. Who amongst the following picked up the Game’s first gold medal? ‘

(1) Augustina Nwaokolo (2) Ravinder Singh (3) Azhar Hussain (4) Carol Huynh (5) None of these

Q.9 In which one of ihe following cities was the recent meet of G-20 Countries organised ?

(1) Tokyo (2) Seoul (3) London (4) Beijing (5) Singapore

Q.10 As per recent newspaper reports, which one of the following countries (among the given) has highest literacy rate?

(1) India (2) Sri Lanka (3) China (4) Vietnam (5) Bangladesh

Q.11 Which one of the following has decided to give guarantee for infra loans? .

(1) IDBI (2) SBI (3) IIFCL (4) SIDBI (5) None of these

Q.12 In which one of the following States is the uranium project proposed to be set up ?

(1) Manipur (2) Meghalaya (3) Orissa (4) Assam (5) Nagaland

Q.13 Amongst 169 countries on Human Development Index, which one of the following is India’s rank?

(1) 89 (2) 91 (3) 119 (4) 129 (5) 138

Q.14 What is ‘Kaveri’ ?

(1) India’s indigeneous aircraft engine

(2) India’s Low Cost laptop

(3) India’s Air to Air Missile

(5) Unmanned Aircraft acquired from Israel

Q.15 An increasing finished good stock as % to sales of a manufacturing Company indicates that-

(A) the market is getting competitive.

(B) the quality of the goods is not upto the mark.

(C) the production cost has increased.

(D) the production has decreased.
(1) Only (A) and (B) (2) Only (B) and (C) (3) Only (C) and (D)
(4) Only (C) (5) Only (D) and (A)

Q. 16 Which one of the following has got RBI nod to issue pre-paid cards to its clients?

(1) LIC (2) GIC (3) SIDBI (4) NABARD (5) None of these

Q.17 For which one of the following reasons is an amendment in Companies Bill 2009 proposed?

(1) To provide more powers to Department of Company Affairs
(2) To provide regulatory powers to Department of Company Affairs
(3) To make Indian Accounting Standards applicable with effect from 1.4.2011
(4) To ensure smooth convergence of the Indian Accounting Standards with IFRS
(5) None of these

Q.18 As per recent newspaper reports, India’s public debt rises 2.8 percent to Rs. 28 lakh crores. Which one of the following is the reason that has forced commercial banks 10 buy Government securities?
(1) Lack of credit growth (2) Increase in credit growth (3) Raising of repo rate
(4) Raising of reverse repo rate (5) None of these

Q.19 In which one of the following States Sariska Tiger Reserve is located?

(1) M. P. (2) U. P. (3) Orissa (4) Gujarat (5) Rajasthan

Q.20 On which one of the following characters, Biometric security is based?
(1) Finger prints and palm recognition only
(2) Face recognition and voice recognition only
(3) Hand writing and manual recognition only
(4) Only(l) and (2) (5) All (1),(2) &(3)

Q.21 Which one of the following may be the consequence of buying forex in the market by the RBI ?
(1) It leads to inflation (2) It leads to control over inflation
(3) It does not affect inflation (4) It results into deflation (5) None of these

Q.22 Under provisions of which one of the following Acts, the Reserve Bank of india has the power to
regulate, supervise and control the banking sector?
(1) RBI Act (2) Banking Regulation Act (3) Negotiable Instrument Act
(4) RBI and Banking Regulation Act (5) None of these

Q.23 Who amongst the following is the author of the book “The God of Small Things” ?
(1) Chetan Bhagat (2) V.S. Naipul (3) Namita Gokhale
(4) Kiran Desai (5) Arundhati Roy

Q. 24 Which one of the following has proposed $ 11 billion infrastructure debt fund?
(1) NABARD (2) SBI (3) RBI
(4) Ministry of Finance, Govt. of India (5) Planning Commission

Q. 25 Myanmar’s pro-democracy leader Suu Kyi is a _
(1) 42 years old politician (2) Bharat Ratna (3) Military General
(4) Nobel Prize winner (5) None of these

Q.26 Which one of the following factors influence working capital of a unit?
(1) Seasonally of operations only (2) Production Policy only
(3) Suppliers Term only (4) Only (1) and (2) (5) All (1), (2) & (3)

Q.27 The G-20 Summit was held in which of the following places in October 2009 ?
(1) Paris (2) Vienna (3) Tokyo (4) Pittsburgh (5) London

Q.28 As per a newspaper report, only few countries are left to make Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), a universal treaty. Which of the following is one of them?
(1) Japan (2) Indian (3) Italy (4) France (5) Russia

Q. 29 Which TV channel has been in the news for its coverage of the Bin Laden crisis, especially for having carried all broadcasts of Osama Bin Laden to. audiences in West Asia?
(1) Star Asia (2) BBC Asia (3) Al Jazeera (4) Khaleed Times (5) None of these

Q.30 India will host the world Tiger Summit for the first time in 2010. The Summit will be organized in __
(1) Kolkata (2) Bharatpur (3) .Junagarh (4) Ranthambore (5) None of these

Q.31 Under what name is MTNL marketing its GSM based mobile telephony?
(1) Swarna (2) Dolphin (3) Speed (4) Vayu (5) None 0 f these

Q.32 Which of the following countries has been fully suspended from the Common wealth of Nations after its refusal to announce General Elections which have been due since long?
(1) Pakistan (2) Nepal (3) Fiji (4) Sri Lanka (5) None of these

Q.33 What is the name of the branded petrol with cleansing additives that is being marketed by HPCL?
(1) Power (2) Premium (3) Speed (4) Clean X (5) None of these

Q. 34 Under what name is MTNL marketing its CDMA based WiLL service in Mumbai and Delhi?
(1) Dolphin (2) Swarna (3) Garuda (4) Seema (5) None of these

Q.35 Which of the following countries agreed recently to discontinuar efuelling ships in the Indian Ocean for the NATO led coalition in Afghanistan?
(1) Japan (2) Indonesia (3) Bangladesh (4) Pakistan (5) None of these

Q.36 To which business group did the Ambanis of Reliance Group sell their holding in Larsen and Toubro?
(1) RP Goenkas (2) A V Birla (3) Kanorias (4) Mittals (5) None of these

Q.37 Name the brand that was launched and promoted by a famous father-son duo.
(1) ICICI Credit cards (2) Parket Beta (3) Maruti Versa (4) All of these. (5) None of these

Q.38 What is the sub brand of the new car that Toyota is launching in India?
(1) Accord (2) Jupiter (3) C Planet (4) Camry (5) None of these

Q.39 Who amongst the following is the winner of the Mahatma Gandhi International Award for Peace and Reconc iliation 2009 ?
(1) Yukiya Amano (2) Aung San Suu Kyi (3) Bill Gates
(4) Hillary Clinton (5) None of these

Q.40 With which brand would you identify the famous advertising slogan ‘Think Different’?
(1) Apple (2) IBM (3) Wipro (4) HCL (5) None of these

Q.41 Credit Rating .

(1) is used to rate the borrowers while giving advances.
(2) is used to work out performance of the employees.
(3) is used to calculate the number of excellent audit rated branches.
(4) is NOT used in any Bank.
(5) is necessary before giving promotion to employees

Q.42 Who amongst the following is the recipient of the ‘Dadasaheb Phalke Award – 2010’?
(1) Javed Akhtar (2) Amitabh Bachchan (3) Guizar
(4) Hema Malini (5) None of above

Q.43 In Corporate Hedging, which one of the following types of risks can be covered?
(1) Liquidity risk (2) Currency risk (3) Credit risk
(4) Transaction risk (5) None of these

Q.44 Bank of Rajasthan is now merged with which of the following banks?
(1) AXIS Bank (2) IDBI Bank (3) ICICI Bank (4) HDFC Bank (5) None of these

Q.45 As per GDP figures on calendar year basis, according to World Bank, which one of the following economies will have highest GDP growth in the year 2011 ?
(1) US (2) China (3) Japan (4) India (5) Brazil

Q.46 In respect of infrastructure bonds is sued under provisions of Section 80 CCF of the Income Tax Act, what is the maximum amount (Rs. in thousands), upto which these bonds can be covered?
(1) 30 (2) 20 (3) 40 (4) 5.0 (5) None of these

Q.47 Which of the following is the full form of the abbreviation ‘IFRS’ as used in corporate / finance Sector ?

(1) Indian Financial Reconciliation Standards
(2) Interpretation and Formal Reporting System
(3) International Financial Reporting Standards
(4) International Financial Reporting System
(5) None of these

Q.48 As per the new guidelines issued by SEBI, companies are required to list shares within how many days of the closure of the Initial Public Offers (IPOs) ?
(1) 60 days (2) 12 days (3) 30 days (4) 45 days (5) None of these

Q.49 RTGS stands for —–
(1) Real Time Gross Settlements (2) Reduced Time Gross Settlements
(3) Relative Time Gross Settlements (4) Real Total Gross Securities (5) None of these

Answer:

(1)3 (2)2 (3) 1 (4) 1 (5) 5 (6) 1 (7)5 (8) 5 (9)2 (10)2 (11)3 (12)2 (13)3 (14)1(15)2 (16)1 (17)4 (18)4 (19)5 (20)5 (21)3 (22)4 (23)5 (24)5 (25)5 (26)2 (27)5 (28)4 (29)3 (30)3 (31)4 (32)2 (33)3 (34)1 (35)3 (36)1 (37)2 (38)3 (39)4 (40)2 (41)1 (42)1 (43)5 (44)2 (45)3 (46)2 (47)2 (48)3 (49)3
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Labels: GENERAL AWARENESS, INDIAN BANK
Friday, May 20, 2011
Central Bank of India Clerk (First Shift) Exam. 2011 Solved Paper

English Language

(Exam Held on 13-2-2011)

Directions—(Q. 1–15) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.

The Sun, while going on his daily rounds saw a princess and fell in love with her. Whenever he could slip away from the heavens he would take human form and go down to the princess to spend some time with her. The princess too became quite fond of him and would wait for him to come. One day the Sun decided to send her a blood-red ruby as a token of his love for her. He put the gem in a silk bag, and calling a crow that was flying past, asked the bird to deliver the gem to his beloved. Crows had milky white feathers in those days and it was considered auspicious if a crow came anywhere near you. So the Sun was pleased that he had found a crow to deliver the gem. As the crow sped through the sky with the silken bag, the aroma of food lured him. Looking down the crow saw that a wedding feast was in progress, and immediately it was distracted from its mission. Food was one thing it could never resist !

Alighting on a tree nearby, it hung the bag on a twig and went off to find some food. While the crow was feasting, a merchant passing by saw the bag on the tree, and knocked it down with a pole. When he opened the bag and saw its contents he almost swooned in joy. Quickly pocketing the ruby, he filled the bag with dry cow dung that was lying there, and then deftly returned the bag to the branch. It was all done so quickly that the crow missed all the action. After having its fill, it flew up to the tree, and picking up the bag took it to the person it was intended for. The princess was in the garden. When the crow gave her the bag, she took it eagerly, knowing that it was from the Sun. But when she saw its contents she reeled back in shock and anger. Believing that it was the Sun’s way of telling her that he did not care for her, she flung the bag away, rushed to her palace, and never came out again. When the Sun learnt of what had happened he was furious.
So great was his anger that when he turned his scorching gaze on the crow, its feathers were burned black. Its feathers have been black ever since. The ruby did not stay with the man who stole it. It fell out of his pocket and rolled into a deep pit. Men have been trying to dig it out ever since. Many precious stones have been found in the process, making Myanmar one of the richest sources of rubies and sapphires, but the ruby that the Sun sent to the princess is yet to be found.

1. What did the Sun send for the princess as a token of his love ?
(A) He sent her the crow
(B) He sent her dry cow dung
(C) He sent her a red ruby
(D) He gifted her the city of Myanmar
(E) None of these
Ans : (C)

2. Why did the princess fling the gift away ?
(A) She did not like rubies
(B) The crow was known to bring bad luck
(C) She had found cow dung in the bag
(D) She thought the Sun was playing a cruel joke on her
(E) She had wanted the Sun to personally deliver it
Ans : (C)

3. What led to the discovery of precious stones in Myanmar ?
(A) Humans discovered the stones in their search for the lost ruby
(B) The crow spread the news of the lost ruby
(C) The princess went in search of the lost ruby and discovered other precious stones
(D) The merchant went in search of the ruby that fell off his pocket
(E) The merchant’s clumsiness led to the discovery of precious stones
Ans : (A)

4. While on its way to the princess, the crow was distracted by—
(A) The merchant calling out to him
(B) The wedding that was taking place below
(C) The ruby that the Sun sent for the princess
(D) The temptation of the smell of food
(E) The huge crowd at the wedding
Ans : (D)

5. Why did the Sun send his gift for the princess along with the crow?
(A) The princess loved crows
(B) The crow was the only bird available at the time
(C) The crow was considered to be an auspicious bird
(D) The crow knew where the princess lived
(E) The Sun trusted the crow
Ans : (C)

6. The joy of the merchant on finding the ruby was short lived because—
(A) He did not succeed in stealing the ruby
(B) The ruby fell out of his pocket
(C) The crow returned just in time and caught him red handed
(D) He soon discovered many more precious stones
(E) None of these
Ans : (B)

7. How did the crow get its black colour ?
(A) The crow was punished by the Sun for its clumsiness
(B) The crow was burned black by the scorching gaze of the angry Sun
(C) The crow was not considered auspicious any more
(D) The crow was cursed by the merchant
(E) None of these
Ans : (B)

8. What could be an appropriate title for the story ?
(A) The Careless Black Crow
(B) Myanmar and its Mineral Riches
(C) The Sun and the Princess
(D) The Depressed Princess
(E) The Sun and the Ruby
Ans : (C)

9. What was the crow’s mission ?
(A) To deliver the gift to the princess
(B) To attend the wedding
(C) To make the Sun angry
(D) To keep the princess in her palace
(E) To protect the princess from the harmful Sun
Ans : (A)

10. What message did the princess get after opening the bag ?
(A) That the Sun truly loved her
(B) That the crow was an evil bird
(C) That the crow was playing a joke on her
(D) That the Sun did not love her anymore
(E) That the cow dung was a token of the Sun’s love for her
Ans : (D)

Directions—(Q. 11–13) Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

11. Token
(A) Symbol
(B) Insurance
(C) Slip
(D) Assurance
(E) Investment
Ans : (A)

12. Deftly
(A) Skillfully
(B) Blindly
(C) Eagerly
(D) Rightfully
(E) Innocently
Ans : (A)

13. Auspicious
(A) Religious
(B) Lucky
(C) Fulfilling
(D) Charming
(E) Normal
Ans : (A)

Directions—(Q. 14–15) Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

14. Scorching
(A) Cool
(B) Heated
(C) Warm
(D) Silent
(E) Composed
Ans : (A)

15. Furious
(A) Beaming
(B) Angry
(C) Forgiving
(D) Calm
(E) Sulking
Ans : (D)

Directions—(Q. 16–25) Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The letter of that part is the answer. If there is no error, the answer is (E) i.e., ‘No error’. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any.)

16. When we (A) / reached the shops, (B) / we find that (C) / they were all closed. (D) No error (E)
Ans : (C)

17. Poor people (A) / has no money (B) / therefore they cannot afford (C) / proper medical facilities. (D) No error (E)
Ans : (B)

18. The course is for (A) / anyone who is interested (B) / in learning (C) / about computers. (D) No error (E)
Ans : (D)

19. We were surprised (A) / that she participated (B) / at the performance (C) / held at NCPA. (D) No error (E)
Ans : (C)

20. As soon as (A) / I getting my (B) / first salary (C) / I spent all my money. (D) No error (E)
Ans : (B)

21. The principal (A) / introducing me (B) / to some of her (C) / teaching staff. (D) No error (E)
Ans : (B)

22. The doctors said that (A) / he was making good progress (B) / and would not (C) / need an operation. (D) No error (E)
Ans : (E)

23. Instead of (A) / to buy books, (B) / I borrow them (C) / from the library. (D) No error (E)
Ans : (B)

24. By the times (A) / we reached the classroom, (B) / the lecture had (C) / already begun. (D) No error (E)
Ans : (A)

25. The Indian government (A) / should make sure that (B) / men and women are (C) / given equal opportunities. (D) No error (E)
Ans : (D)

Directions—(Q. 26–30) Pick out the most effective word from the given words to fill in the blanks to make the sentence meaningfully complete.

26. I was annoyed …… John for arriving late.
(A) on
(B) about
(C) by
(D) for
(E) with
Ans : (E)

27. We are …… the possibility of buying our own house.
(A) judging
(B) initiating
(C) threatening
(D) applying
(E) considering
Ans : (E)

28. The student did not pay …… to the instructions that were given to her in class.
(A) ear
(B) awareness
(C) notice
(D) attention
(E) closure
Ans : (D)

29. The young boy was unhurt …… for a minor injury to his knee.
(A) less
(B) except
(C) also
(D) just
(E) while
Ans : (B)

30. There is …… chance of seeing her again …… she leaves.
(A) perhaps, when
(B) also, as
(C) little, before
(D) full, therefore
(E) more, after
Ans : (A)

Directions—(Q. 31–35) In each question below four words which are lettered (A), (B), (C) and (D) have been printed, of which, one word may be wrongly spelt. The letter of that word is the answer. If all the four words are correctly spelt, mark (E) i.e. “All Correct” as the answer.

31. (A) Accept
(B) Reciept
(C) Frequent
(D) Gesture
(E) All Correct
Ans : (B)

32. (A) Justise
(B) Practice
(C) Menace
(D) Variance
(E) All Correct
Ans : (A)

33. (A) Complaint
(B) Alerted
(C) Cheated
(D) Hunged
(E) All Correct
Ans : (D)

34. (A) Remorse
(B) Noble
(C) Upsurge
(D) Incline
(E) All Correct
Ans : (E)

35. (A) Blister
(B) Warrant
(C) Arrest
(D) Mannual
(E) All Correct
Ans : (D)

Directions—(Q. 36–40) Rearrange the following six sentences (1), (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph; then answer the questions given below them.
1. At first he got scared, but then he thought, “I have never worshipped her that is why I am not able to get anything from my land.”
2. One day unable to tolerate the summer heat, he went to rest under a big banyan tree.
3. He rushed to his village and placed his humble offering of milk in a bowl before the snake.
4. Vishnu Raman was a poor Brahmin and a farmer by profession.
5. The next day when he returned, he was rewarded with a gold coin in the bowl he left behind.
6. Just as he was preparing to lie down he saw a huge Cobra swaying with his hood open.

36. Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after the rearrangement ?
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 5
(D) 4
(E) 6
Ans : (A)

37. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after the rearrangement ?
(A) 1
(B) 4
(C) 6
(D) 3
(E) 5
Ans : (B)

38. Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after the rearrangement ?
(A) 5
(B) 6
(C) 2
(D) 1
(E) 4
Ans : (D)

39. Which of the following should be the FIFTH sentence after the rearrangement ?
(A) 6
(B) 4
(C) 3
(D) 2
(E) 5
Ans : (C)

40. Which of the following should be the SIXTH (LAST) sentence after the rearrangement ?
(A) 4
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 5
(E) 6
Ans : (D)

Directions—(Q. 41–50) In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

Once upon a time there lived a peacock and a tortoise in close proximity and they became the best of friends. The peacock lived on a tree on the …(41)… of a stream which was the home of the tortoise. It was a daily …(42)… for the peacock to dance near the stream after he had a drink of water. He would display his great plumage for the amusement of his friend. One unfortunate day, a bird-catcher who was on the …(43)… caught the peacock and was about to take him away to the market. The unhappy bird begged his captor to allow him to bid his friend the tortoise good-bye, as it would be the …(44)… time he would see him. The bird-catcher gave in to his request and took him to the tortoise. The tortoise was in tears to see his friend held …(45)….
The tortoise asked the birdcatcher to let the peacock go; but he laughed at the request, saying that it was his means of livelihood. The tortoise then said, “If I give you an expensive present, will you let my friend go ?” “Certainly,” answered the bird-catcher. Whereupon, the tortoise …(46)… into the water and in a few seconds came up with a handsome pearl, which he presented to the bird-catcher. This was beyond the man’s expectations, and he let the peacock go immediately. A short time after, the bird-catcher came back and told the tortoise that he thought he had not paid enough for the release of his friend, and …(47)…, that unless a match to the pearl was obtained for him, he would catch the peacock again. The tortoise, who had already …(48)… his friend to shift to a distant jungle on being set free, was greatly …(49)… by the greed of the bird – catcher. “Well,” said the tortoise, “if you insist on having another pearl like the one I gave you, give it back to me and I will fish you an exact match for it.” The greediness of the bird-catcher prevented his reasoning and he …(50)… gave the pearl to the clever tortoise. The tortoise swam out with it saying, “I am no fool to give you another pearl, you’re greediness has left you with nothing.

41. (A) fence
(B) brim
(C) banks
(D) base
(E) outlet
Ans : (C)

42. (A) fact
(B) lifestyle
(C) phenomenon
(D) adventure
(E) routine
Ans : (C)

43. (A) prowl
(B) guard
(C) rounds
(D) duty
(E) alert
Ans : (B)

44. (A) right
(B) last
(C) perfect
(D) appropriate
(E) justified
Ans : (B)

45. (A) captive
(B) custody
(C) affectionately
(D) badly
(E) carelessly
Ans : (A)

46. (A) collapsed
(B) dived
(C) sunk
(D) drowned
(E) slipped
Ans : (B)

47. (A) wished
(B) secured
(C) contemplated
(D) debated
(E) threatened
Ans : (E)

48. (A) advised
(B) left
(C) disowned
(D) excluded
(E) wanted
Ans : (A)

49. (A) aware
(B) enraged
(C) superstitious
(D) touched
(E) tolerant
Ans : (B)

50. (A) deftly
(B) clumsily
(C) selfishly
(D) affectionately
(E) promptly
Ans : (E)
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Labels: CENTRAL BANK OF INDIA, ENGLISH
Thursday, May 19, 2011
CHIEF MINISTERS
State Chief Minister
Andhra Pradesh Shri Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy
Arunachal Pradesh Shri Jarbom Gamlin
Assam Shri Tarun Gogoi
Bihar Shri Nitish Kumar
Chhattisgarh Dr. Raman Singh
Delhi Smt Sheila Dikshit
Goa Shri Digambar Kamat
Gujarat Shri Narendra Modi
Haryana Shri Bhupinder Singh Hooda
Himachal Pradesh Prof. Prem Kumar Dhumal
Jammu and Kashmir Shri Omar Abdullah
Jharkhand Shri Arjun Munda
Karnataka Shri B. S. Yeddyurappa
Kerala Shri Oommen Chandy
Madhya Pradesh Shri Shivraj Singh Chouhan
Maharashtra Shri Prithviraj Chavan
Manipur Shri Okram Ibobi Singh
Meghalaya Dr. Mukul Sangma
Mizoram Shri Pu Lalthanhawla
Nagaland Shri Neiphiu Rio
Orissa Shri Naveen Patnaik
Puducherry Shri N. Rangasamy
Punjab Shri Parkash Singh Badal
Rajasthan Shri Ashok Gehlot
Sikkim Shri Pawan Chamling
Tamil Nadu Sushree J. Jayalalithaa
Tripura Shri Manik Sarkar
Uttar Pradesh Kumari Mayawati
Uttarakhand Shri Ramesh Pokhriyal
West Bengal Kumari Mamata Banerjee

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Trains Passing through Kottayam ( KTYM )

Posted by keralaofficial on May 22, 2011


Train name Train no. Arrives Departs Starting Station End Station
KCL Dadar Express 168 11:
55
12:00 Kochuveli Dadar
LTT Garibrath Express 2202 11:
55
12:00 Kochuveli Lokmanyatilak T
GHY – TVC Express 2516 20:05 20:
10
Guwahati Trivandrum Cntl
Trivandrum Mail 2623 07:
55
08:00 Chennai Central Trivandrum Cntl
Kerala Express 2625 14:05 14:
10
Trivandrum Cntl New Delhi
Kerala Express 2626 11:00 11:05 New Delhi Trivandrum Cntl
Gurudev Express 2659 19:05 19:
10
Nagarcoil Junction Shalimar
Gurudev Express 2660 16:
50
16:
55
Shalimar Nagarcoil Junction
Trivandrum Express 2695 03:
50
03:
55
Chennai Central Trivandrum Cntl
Bikaner Express 6312 18:
20
18:
25
Trivandrum Cntl Bikaner Junction
MDU – JAMMU Express 6317 19:05 19:
10
Kanyakumari Jammutawi
Himsagar Express 6318 15:
55
16:00 Jammutawi Kanyakumari
KRBA – TVC Express 6327 14:
15
14:
20
Korba Trivandrum Cntl
Veraval Express 6334 18:
20
18:
25
Trivandrum Cntl Veraval
Gandhidham Express 6336 18:
20
18:
25
Nagarcoil Junction Gandhidham Junction
Mangalore Express 6347 23:
58
00:03 Trivandrum Cntl Mangalore Cntl
Parasuram Express 6349 09:
35
09:
40
Trivandrum Cntl Mangalore Cntl
Mumbai – Kanyakumari Express 6381 15:05 15:
10
Mumbai CST Kanyakumari
CAPE – CSTM Express 6382 11:
30
11:
35
Kanyakumari Mumbai CST
Kanyakumari Express 6526 11:
25
11:
30
Bangalore Cy Junction Kanyakumari
Malabar Express 6629 22:
10
22:
15
Trivandrum Cntl Mangalore Cntl
Sabari Express 7229 10:05 10:
10
Trivandrum Cntl Hyderabad Junction

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No berth for K. Muraleedharan; Kerala new ministers

Posted by keralaofficial on May 21, 2011


Chief Minister Oommen Chandy Saturday announced the list of the Congress ministers in the UDF government.

Senior congress leader Aryadan Mohammed, K. Babu, Thiruvanchoor Radhakrishnan, K C Joseph, Adoor Prakash, C N Balakrishnan, V S Shivakumar, P.K. Jayalakshmi and A P Anilkumar have been alloted berths in the ministry.

Prominent leaders whose names are missing from the list include K. Muraleedharan who returned to the party recently and V.D. Satheeshan, MLA

Oommen Chandy said several eligible candidates could not be included because of limit set on the number of ministers. The names of Speaker and Deputy Speaker will be decided later, he said.

P.K. Jayalakshmi is the lone woman representative in the council of ministers. The 29-year-old is also the first from the tribal community to be appointed as a minister.

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History of Kerala Legislature

Posted by keralaofficial on May 19, 2011


When we look back to the history of Indian Legislative set up, we find several things to feel proud of, as we were the first in many a political experiment. Among the Princely States in the country, it was in the erstwhile state of Travancore that the first Legislative Council was constituted in 1888 with six official and two non-official members. In 1898 it was decided that the number of members might be raised from eight to 15 of which two fifth should be non-official members. But the ideal of election in its literal sense was not accepted even in principle. Similar legislative reforms took place in 1920 and 1922.
Abstention Movement
During the regime of Sri. Chitra Thirunal, who was enthroned in 1932, there were some radical reforms in this field. The Legislative Council was divided into Sreemoolam Assembly and Sri Chitra State Council. In protest against the inadequacy of the Constitutional reforms of 1932, the Nivartana (abstention) movement was started, as the Ezhavas, the Christians and the Muslims who constituted 70 per cent of the population, apprehended that the new reforms, owing to the provisions for restricted franchise on the basis of the area of possession of property and other qualifications, would secure for them only a few number of seats in the enlarged legislature than the Nayars. They demanded apportioning of the seats on the basis of population. When the Government turned a deaf ear to the voice of protest, they organized a Joint Political Congress and exhorted the voters to abstain from voting. The Government at last conceded their demands to a certain extent by introducing communal reservation in appointments to the public service.
The Haripura Session of the Indian National Congress in 1938 had resolved that the party should keep itself aloof from involvement in the affairs of the princely states. This paved the way for the formation of the Travancore State Congress and Cochin State Congress the same year. The peasant and labour movements of the 1930s were responsible for the emergence of a let wing in politics which ultimately resulted in the birth of the Congress Socialist Party. The radical section of the Nationalist Muslims in Malabar lent full support to the leftists. And very soon the Kerala Provincial Congress Committee came to be dominated by them.
In 1925 at 45 member legislature came into being in Cochin of which 30 were elected members. The creation of the post of a minister responsible to the legislature, and entrusting him with the charge of all the departments related to rural development was the next step forward in 1930 when a diarchical form of Government was established. In the 50 member legislative council, 38 were elected members. The Cochin Congress and the Cochin State Congress were the main contestants. The Cochin congress secured 13 seats, the Cochin State Congress 12 and Independents and the Progressive Party 13. The Cochin Congress and with the support of some independents came to power on June 17, 1938. Ambattu Sivarama Menon was appointed Minister for Rural Development. This earned for Cochin the distinction of being the first state among the princely states to usher tnaministerial Government. Sivarama Menon died on August 30 and he was followed by Dr. A.R. Menon. And with the passage of a non-confidence motion on February 25, 1942, he was forced to resign. Shri. T.K. Nair of Cochin congress assumed charge of the ministerial office. Since the Second World War was on, the Maharaja extended the term of the Council and as such he could continue in the office till July 11, 1945.
On January 26, 1941 a new political called Cochin Rajya Prajamandalam was constituted with Sri. V.R. Krishnan Ezhuthachan as its President. In the elections held in 1945, the Prajamandalam could win 12 seats out of the total 19 seats, but it did not claim the ministership. Therefore the Maharaja appointed Shri Parambi Lonappan, Leader of the Nationalis-Group, the Minster for Rural Development. Shri Balakrishna Menon also joined the ministry later. Following the passage of a no-confidence motion, they had to resign. Though the Prajamandalam was invited to forma ministry they rejected the officer. Thus again the political affairs reached a crisis. On August 17, 1946 he Maharaja declared that all portfolios except law and order and finance would be given to the popular ministers. Thus a 4 member ministry assumed office on September 9, 1946. Sahodaran Ayyappan, T.K. Nair, Panampilli Govinda Menon and C.R. Iyyunni were the members of the Cabinet. Later a 3 member ministry under the leadership of Panampilli Govinda Menon came to power and then the Home Portfolio also was handed over to the ministry. When Home Minister, T.K. Nair used the police force to put down labour struggles and popular agitations, Panampilli, C.R. Iyyunni and Sahodaran Ayyappan resigned from the Cabinet. No longer did the Maharaja dismiss the Council, than he announced that elections with adult franchise would be held in October 1948. In the elections, the Prajamandalam secured overwhelming majority and Ikkanda Warrier was elected leader of the party. Panampilli Govinda Menon, Sahodaran Ayyappan and C.A. Ouseph were his colleagues in the cabinet. On July 1, 1949 the integration of Cochin and Travancore took place. The members of the Cochin legislative council became M.L.As of Travancore-Cochin legislature. In the Travancore-Cochin state a nine member ministry was formed including the four ministers of Cochin, with Shri T.K. Narayana Pillai as the leader.
The end of the Quit India Movement saw Malabar returning to elections and Constitutional Government. Administratively Malabar was district of Madras Province at the time of Independence. The Malabar district had also representation in Madras cabinets. And among the ministers from Malabar were Shri Kozhipurathu Madhava Menon, Shri. C.J. Varkey, Shri A. Raghava Menon, Shri Kongathil Raman Menon (all Congress) and Shri. R.M. Palat (Justice Party).
The Travancore State Congress launched a campaign seeking dismissal of the Dewan, Sir C.P. Ramaswamy Iyer, on the basis of certain allegations. But the party was forced to withdraw the charges on Gandhiji s intervention. This created a split in Congress. The members of the Youth League left the State Congress to form the Communist party.
Travancore, however, was not destined to have a peaceful transition to freedom and democracy. In the last week of October 1946, (October 24 to 27) the State saw the most violent upheavals, the Punnappra Vayalar revolt of the working class, an armed revolt by the poor with a view to ending the police raj under the Dewan. Even after the attainment of freedom the Dewan declared on June11, 1947 that Travancore would remain an Independent State on the lapse of British paramountancy. When he let loose repression, an unsuccessful attempt on his life was made on July 25, 1947. And forced by the new developments he left Travancore on August 19, 1947.
First Election After Independence

On September 4, 1947 the Maharaja of Travancore issued a declaration to elect Constituent Assembly in Travancore as a prelude to the introduction of adult franchise. The first election was held in February 1948. Out of the total 120 seats, the Indian National Congress contested 112 and won 97 seats. The Muslim League secured eight, Tamil Nadu Congress 14 and independent one. Though the Communist Party contested 17 seats and the K.S.P. eight, they could not win a single seat. On March 20, 1948 the Travancore Constituent Assembly came into being, the first of its kind formed on the basis of adult franchise in the country. It started functioning under the presidentship of late Shri A.J. John. But as per a declaration of the Raja on March 24, it began to function also a Legislative Assembly. An interim three member Ministry was formed with late Shri Pattom A Thanu Pillai as Prime Minister. The late Shri. C. Kesavan and Shri T.M. Varghese were the other two members of this first popular ministry in Travancore. As a result of the internecine fueds within the Congress, a no-confidence motion was carried, and the Pattom Ministry resigned on October 17, 1948. Then a seven member Ministry under the leadership of the late Shri T.K. Narayana Pillai came to power on 22nd October, 1948.
The movement for a United Kerala gathered momentum. Following the national policy of integration, the States of Travancore and Cochin were merged into Travancore-Cochin state under the Raja of Travancore as the Raj Pramukh on 1st July 1949. A seven member cabinet was sworn in under the stewardship of Shri T.K. Narayana Pillai on that day, the first ministry of the erstwhile T.C. State. Consequent on political troubles within the party the T.K. ministry had to resign on February 24, 1951. Though the late Shri C. Kesavan formed a three member ministry all of a sudden, he tendered resignation of the leadership on 20th March and was unanimously re-elected as leader. The ministry was expanded on September 6 by inducting four more members.
First General Election in the Republic
India became a Sovereign Democratic Republic on January 26, 1950. Before the 1951-52 general elections, the Socialist Party was formed under the leadership of Shri Pattam Thanu Pillai, and the Democratic Congress Party came into being with the late Shri Mannath Padmanabhan and Shri. R. Sankar as its leaders.
The first general election was held from December 10, 1951 to January 5, 1952 in the erstwhile Travancore-Cochin State. Out of the 108 seats, Congress got 44 seats (three uncontested), Socialist 11 (One uncontested), Communist 25, R.S.P. 6, Travancore Tamilnadu Congress 8, K.S.P. and Cochin party one each and Independents 12. (The Communist party was then banned in T.C.) On 12th March 1952 a six member ministry was sworn-in with Shri A.J. John as Chief Minister. Later a representative of the T.T.N.C. was also inducted into the cabinet following the alliance made with that party by the Congress. As a result of the disagreement between the Congress and T.T.N.C. which demanded a separate Congress organization for Tamils, a confidence motion tabled by the ruling party on September 23, 1953 fell through. The Assembly was dissolved and the ministry continued
as care-taker Government till the next elections.
The second election to the T.C. Assembly was held in February 1954. Following delimitation, the number of seats rose to 118. When the results were announced the party position was as follows: INC-45, T.T.N.C-12, P.S.P.-19, Communist-23, R.S.P.-9, K.S.P.-3, Independents-6 and an Anglo-Indian member. Though there was an electoral understanding between the Congress and the P.S.P. the latter refused to support the Congress in forming a ministry. Though unsuccessful, this was the first electoral alliance in India. In order to avert political uncertainty, the Congress extended support to the P.S.P. to form a cabinet. Thus a four-member cabinet of the P.S.P under its leader Shri Pattam Thanu Pillai came to power. When the Congress withdrew its support to the P.S.P. ministry, it had to resign. In the meantime, two P.S.P. legislators had joined the Congress. Thus with the support of the T.T.N.C., Shri Panampilli Govinda Menon formed a five member cabinet-the fifth ministry in the T.C. State. That ministry also could not complete its term, and the State came under President s rule for the first time. Shri P.S. Rao was appointed Advisor to the Rajapramukh.
Birth of Kerala
Reorganisation of states on linguistic lines took place on the recomm-endations of the States Reorganisation Commission. Thus the long-cherished dream of the Malayalees for a United Kerala came true on November 1, 1956. The entire Malabar District of Madras and the Kasargod Taluk of South Canara District were added to Kerala and the Tamil-speaking southern region of old Tranvancore State was annexed to the Madras State. The rule of Rajapramukh was ended and Shri P.S. Rao was appointed Acting Governor of Kerala. On November 22, 1956 Dr. B. Ramakrishna Rao assumed the gubernatorial office in Kerala.
1957 General Elections
The first elections to the Kerala Assembly were held from February 28 to March 11, 1957. Out of the total 126 seats, 11 seats were reserved for scheduled castes and one for scheduled tribes. The number of constituencies was 114, of which twelve were two-member ones. The electors numbered 7,514,626 and the total number of valid votes polled as 5,837,577. The Communist Party of India emerged as the largest single party in the Assembly with 60 seats. It was for the first time in the history of the world that the Communist party came to power through ballot. Five of the Independent candidates returned to the House had the support of the Communist Party in the elections and they, therefore, joined the communist Legislature party. The first popular ministry of Kerala headed by Shri E.M.S. Namboodiripad, leader of the Communist Party, was sworn in on 5th April 1957. This Government did not last long. An agitation known as liberation struggle was launched by the Congress-led opposition and the president issued on 31st July 1959 a proclamation under article 356 of the Constitution dissolving the Assembly and introducing President s rule in the State.
1960 Elections
Elections were held on 1st February 1960, for the first time, the polling throughout the state was held on a single day.
There was an electoral alliance between the Congress, the P.S.P. and the Muslim League. They fielded 125 candidates and supported an independent sponsored by the Congress. The communist Party fielded 108 party candidates and supported 16 Independents. There were 102 single-member and 12 double member constituencies. In 63 single-member constituencies and seven two-member constituencies and seven two-member constituencies there were straight fights with only two candidates for each seat, though other parties such as the B.J.S., the R.S.P. and the Socialist (Lohia) party also were in the fray. Of the 8,038,268 electors (votes: 9,601.601), the valid votes numbered 8,104,077. The results of the elections were as follows: Congress-63, PSP-20, Muslim League-11, CPI-29 and Independents-3 (including one for R.S.P. and one for United Karnataka Samithi).
Shri Pattam A Thanu Pillai of the P.S.P. took over on February, 22 as the coalition Chief Minister leading a council of eleven ministers. Shri. R. Sankar of the Congress was designated as Deputy Chief Minister. The late Shri. Seethi Shib of Muslim League was elected Speaker, and following his demise Shri. C.H. Mohammed Koya assumed that office. Gradually differences of opinion arose between the Congress
and the Muslim League and the latter decided on November 9, 1961 to quit, the coalition. The next day Speaker Shri. C.H. Mohammed Koya tendered his resignation. Shri. Alexander Parambithara was elected Speaker and the Congress-PSP coalition ministry continued in power. Shri. Pattam A Thanu Pillai relinquished the reins of
power on September 25, 1962, consequent on his appointment as Governor of the Punjab. Shri. R. Sankar took over as Chief Minister the next day. On October 10, 1962 the two remaining P.S.P. Ministers bowed out from the Ministry . Shri Sankar continued as Chief Minister for about two years. Following some differences of opinion with the Chief Minister, the Home Minister Shri. P.T. Chacko resigned on 16th February 1964. A political crisis was precipitated in September 1964 which resulted in the formation of a dissident group in the Congress Legislature Party. This group consisting of 15 MLAs lent support to a no-confidence motion moved by the P.S.P. leader Shri P.K. Kunju against the Sankar ministry on September 8. The motion was carried and the legislature dissolved leading to President s rule for the third time in the state. And the dissidents formed a new party, Kerala Congress.
Abortive Elections of 1965
Elections were next held on 4th March 1965. The system of single and double member constituencies had been given up in 1962. A fresh delimitation of the constituencies increased their number to 133. The INC. alone fought the elections in all seats without any alliance. In the meantime the Communist party had been split into two, viz. the CPI and the CPI (M). The CPI had electoral understanding with the S.S.P. and the Muslim League. The CPI. was in alliance with the R.S.P. which had an understanding with the Kerala Congress. The INC won 36 seats, the CPM-40, the S. S. P.-13, the ML-6, the CPI-3, the Kerala Congress-23 and Independents 12. As the final post-election picture emerged, no single party
could form a ministry commanding majority. Thus the 1965 elections became abortive. Once again on March 25 President s rule was invoked for the fourth time.
1967 Elections
Kerala next went to the polls two years later along with the March 1967 General elections. A new polarization of political forces had taken place leading to new electoral alliances. Politically the most potent factor was the new United Front of the CPI (M), the CPI, the ML, the RSP the Samyuktha Socialist Party, the karshaka Thozhilali Party and the Kerala Socialist party. Then the INC faced the elections single-handedly. The Kerala Congress was reported to have had electoral understanding with the Swatantra Party and the DMK. The Seven-party CPI (M) led United Front won a decisive victory at the hustings. It could win a convicting majority in the Assembly. The second Namboodiripad ministry was thus formed on 6th March 1967. The Cabinet consisted of four members of the CPI (M) two each of the CPI, the ML and the SSP and one each of the RSP, the KTP and the KSP. This ministry soon ran into rough weather and Chief Minister Shri Namboodiripad resigned on October 24 1969.
As distinct from the previous ministerial crises, the fall of the second Namboodiripad ministry left the legislature intact. A fresh alignment of political forces within the Assembly led to the formation of an eight-member cabinet headed by Shri. C. Achutha Menon of the CPI on 1st November 1969. The ruling alliance consisted of the CPI, the ISP, the ML, the RSP and the Kerala Congress.
For the first time in the legislative history of the State, the cabinet was led by a personality who was not a sitting member of the Assembly, but a member of the Rajya Sabha. In a by-election held on April 21, 1970 Shri. Menon was returned to the Assembly from Kottarakkara. In the meantime a split occurred in the ISP and three members of the party joined the PSP. In order to avert a political crisis Shri. C. Achutha Menon recommended the dissolution of the Assembly on June 26. He tendered the resignation of the Cabinet on August 1, 1970. The State was forthwith placed under President s rule for the fifth time.
Assembly Elections in 1970
Elections were next held on 17th September 1970. The allies of the ruling
front now included the INC, the CPI, the RSP, the ML and the PSP. It secured 79 seats. Shri C. Achutha Menon formed his second ministry on October 4, 1970.
The INC and the KC which were allied of the ruling combine did not join the ministry at first, but extended support from without. The Cabinet was expanded on two occasions, when the INC joined it is September 1971, and to induct the nominees of the Kerala Congress in December 1975. The fourth Kerala Legislative Assembly had the distinction of being the first Assembly in the State to complete its normal Constitutional term. Moreover, the normal term of the Assembly which expired on October 21, 1975 was extended on three occasions over six month periods during the Emergency.
1977 Elections
A fresh delimitation of Assembly Constituencies was effected in 1974. As a result, on the eve of March 1977 elections, Kerala had, as at present, 140 Assembly seats. The electorate had gone up to 11,460,901 as against 10,169,467 in 1970. Female voters slightly outnumbered their male counter-parts. As in the previous election the main contestants were the ruling front and the opposition front. The former represented an alliance of five recognized political parties viz., the Congress, the CPI, the ML, the RSP, the KC and the unrecognized political party of P.S.P.
This combine was supported by the National Democratic Party (NDP), a newly-formed political projection of the Nair Service Society. The ruling front fielded 130 candidates of recognized political parties such as the CPM, the BLD (Janata), the ML (Opposition) and the Kerala Congress (Pillai group). (Splits occurred in the ML and the KC before1977 elections). The unrecognized political parties in the front were: the Congress Radical, the KSP and the National R.S.P. It was the general election after the withdrawal of Emergency imposed on June 26, 1975. Despite the polarization, straight fights were confined to only 33 constituencies. Elections were held on 19th March 1977. The total number of valid votes was 8,773,646. The ruling front secured 111 seats as detailed below:
INC-38, CPI-23, KC-20, ML-13, RSP-9, NDP-5, and PSP-3. The Opposition got only 29 seats as follows: CPM-17, BLD-6, ML(O)-3, KC (PG) 2 and Independent-one.
A two-member ministry was formed with Shri K. Karunakaran of Congress as Chief Minister on March 25, 1977. All the remaining thirteen ministers were sworn in on April 11, 1977. However, Shri. Karunakaran had to resign on April 25, 1977, following certain references by the Kerala High Court in what came to be known as the Rajan case. Then under the leadership of Shri. A.K. Antony who as not then an M.L.A., a 15 member ministry assumed office on April 27, 1977.
Shri. Antony was later elected from Kazhakuttom in a bye-election held on October 22, 1977. Shri. Antony himself resigned on October 27, 1978 in protest against the stand taken by the Congress on the Chikkamagalur bye-election in which Smt. Indira Gandhi was the candidate of the party. Shri. P.K. Vasudevan Nair of the CPI became the Chief Minister when the next ministry was sworn in on October 29, 1978, but his ministry also resigned on October 7, 1979 in order to create an atmosphere conducive to the formation of a Left Democratic Front in Kerala. Shri. C.H. Mohammed Koya
of Muslim League assumed office on October 12, 1979, but the four-member ministry was forced to resign on December 1, 1979. The Assembly was dissolved and President s rule was invoked in Kerala for the sixth time and it continued upto
24th January 1980.
Assembly Polls – 1980
The Congress had in the meantime split into two the INC (1) and the INC (U). The Kerala Congress also followed suit, the splinter groups being the KC (M) and the KC (J). The ML (O) assumed the name AIML. When the January 1980 polls were looming large on the horizon, political alignments in the State had undergone a sea-change involving a drastic regrouping of major political parties. The stage was set for the eventual emergence of two political combines the United Democratic Front (UDF) consisting of the INC (I), the IUML, the KC (J), the PSP, the NDP and the Socialist Republican Party (SRP a new political organization of the SNDP), and the Left Democratic Front comprising, the CPM, the CPI, the INC (U), the KC (M), the KC (PG), the AIML and the RSP. The UDF had worked out seat adjustments with the Janatha Party in a number of constituencies, though they were locked in battle in some others.
Kerala s total electorate in 1980 was 13,266,064. The elections were held on 3rd and 6th January. There were 9,286,699 valid votes. The results of the elections were announced on 22-1-1980. The LDF won 93 seats and 4,832,481 votes. The party position was as follows: CPM-35, INC (U)-21 (plus one nominated member), CPI-17, KC (M)-8, KC (PG)-1 [later joined the KC (M)], RSP-6 and AIML-5.
The UDF secured 46 seats and 4,426,669 votes. The front consisted of INC (I)-17, IUML-14, KC (J)-6, Janata-5, NDP-3 and PSP-one. The lone Independent candidate supported the LDF while it was in power. Shri. E.K. Nayanar of CPM, headed a 17 member ministry which was sworn in on 25th January 1980, revoking President s rule.
Despite the thumping majority for the LDF in the Assembly difference of opinion among the ruling partners culminated in the withdrawal of support, of 16th October 1981, to the ministry by the Congress (U). The ministry had then the majority of one member excluding the Speaker. And the ministry resigned on 20th October 1981, When the 8 member KC (M) withdrew its support to the Government. The Chief Minister tendered resignation and the next day the President took over the administration for the seventh time, placing the sixth Kerala Assembly in suspended animation.
Again a political realignment took place. The Congress (S) and the KC (M) joined the UDF. An eight-member UDF Ministry was sworn in on December 28, 1981 with Shri. K. Karunakaran of Congress (I) as Chief Minister. It was the twelth ministry in Kerala since the formation of the State on November 1, 1956. Troubles began to raise again. The Congress (S) split into two factions, 16 members joining the Antony group [Congress (A)] and six remaining as members of the Chacko group. Later a split occurred in the Janata part also. Three members of the five-member party lent support to the ministry. Thus the Government had then the lead of a single member who was the Speaker. On 15th March 1982 Shri Lonappan Nambadan of KC (M) withdrew his support to the ministry and consequently the Karunakaran ministry resigned on March 17. The Assembly was dissolved on the advice of the outgoing Chief Minister and again the State fell under president’s rule for the eighth time.
1982 Elections
The political alliances had undergone a further change when the Congress (A), the KC (M) and the Janata (G) jointed the UDF. The two political fronts emerged in the 1982 electoral arena were the UDF and the LDF. The UDF included seven parties viz., the INC (I), the IUML, the KC (M) the KC (J), the NDP, the SRP, the Janata (G), the RSP (S) and the NRSP. The DLP also declared support to the Front. The LDF comprised the CPM, the CPI, the Congress (S), the AIML, the RSP, the KC (S) a party formed by Shri Lonappan Nambadan, the DSP and the Lok Dal. The Janata party had seat adjustments with the LDF. The number of political parties in Kerala now rose to 25 as against five in 1957.
On 19th May 1982 the electorate of Kerala marched to the polling booth to elect their representatives to the Kerala Assembly for the eighth time. The size of the electorate came down to 13,117,012 from 13,266,064 in 1980. Besides the 280 candidates put up by the two major fronts, the BJP fielded 68 candidates. Out of the 9,640,774 votes polled, 9,573,590 were valid.
The results of the elections were announced on May 20. The UDF won 77 seats, but its effective strength was 76, as Shri Karunakaran was elected from two constituencies. The UDF secured 4,617,498 votes which formed 48.25 per cent of the valid votes. The INC (I) won 20 seats out of 35, the Congress (A) 15 out of 28, the ICUML 14 out of 18, the KG (M) 6 out of 17, the KC (J) 8 out of 12, the Janata (G) 4 out of 8, the NDP 4 out of 8, the SRP 2 out of 6, the RSP (S) one out of 4, and the DLP, the PSP and the Independent one each out of one each. The LDF won 63 seats obtaining 4,523,228 votes which constituted 47.24 per cent of the total valid votes. The CPM got 26 seats out of 51, the CPI 13 out of 25m the congress (S) 7 out of 18, the AIML 4 out of 12, the Janata 4 out of 12, the RSP 4 out of 8, the KC (S) and DSP one each and the Independents three out of 11. Out of the eleven Independent candidates of the LDF, nine were fielded by the CPM, one by the CPI and the remaining one with the combined support of the LDF partners. None of the BJP candidates were returned. They had secured 262,847 votes which formed 2.75 per cent of the valid votes.
The UDF ministry with Shri K. Karunakaran as its leader, assumed office on March 24, 1982. Out of the 19 Ministers, four belonged to the congress (I), three each from the INC (A) and the IUML, two each from the KC (M) and the KC (J) and one each from the SRP, the NDP, the PSP, the Janata and the RSP (S).
The merger of the INC (I) and the INC (A) and of two factions of the Muslim League were the most important events during the regime of the UDF ministry. A faction of the IC (S) joined the INC. Though the merger of the two factions of the Kerala Congress took place, a split again occurred before the time of filing nominations to the 1987 elections. There were splits in the NDP, SRP and the PSP. In spite of those crises, this was the second ministry in Kerala which could complete the full term of office.
1987 Assembly Elections
The ninth elections to the eighth Kerala Assembly were held on 23rd March, 1987. The UDF and the LDF were, as usual, the two major political fronts. The UDF included the INC (I) the IUML, the KC (J), the KC (M), the NDP (P), the SRP (S) and the RSP (S). The LDF comprised the CPI (M) the CPI, the RSP, the IC (S), the Janata and the Lok Dal. And the third front consists of the BJP and the Hindu Munnani. The NDP(P), the SRP (V), the ILP, the AIFB, the SUCI, the CMP, the Socialist, the KSP and some non-political organizations had also fielded their candidates. A record number (764) of independent candidates was also in the fray.
Out of the 140 elective seats in the Assembly, 13 were reserved for the SC and one for the ST. The electorate had increased from 13,117,012 in 1982 to 15,948,137 in 1987. Female voters outnumbered the male.
Though the elections in all the 140 constituencies were announced the elections to two seats Vamanapuram and Kottayam were countermanded following the demise of two independent candidates. While the election to the 138 constituencies were held on 23rd March, the polling took place in the other two constituencies on 2nd June 1987. There were 1253 candidates at the hustings. The female candidates numbered 35 as against 15 in 1982.
The party-wise allocation of seats by the LDF was as follows: –
CPM 70; CPM Independents-nine; CPI-25; CPI Independent-one, IC(S)-14; Janata-12; Lok Dal-2; RSP-7. The political alignment pattern of the UDF was:-
INC-76; ML-23; KC(J)-13, KC(M)-10; NDP(P)-9; SRP(S)-4; RSP(S)-one and Independent-two. The Kerala Congress (J) and the Muslim League had given the Taliparamba and Azhikode seats respectively to the CMP with which they had electoral understanding. Thus the UDF had actually contested only 138 seats. The BJP-HM Front fielded 127 candidates. Some of the Hindu Munnani candidates contested under the approved symbol of the BJP. The CMP fielded 84 candidates. And in the fray were 764 independent candidates.
Of the 15,948,137 voters, 12,864,620 persons exercised their franchise which constitute 80.55 per cent of the total electorate. Invalid votes numbered 91,945. Thus the total number of valid votes came to 12,754,675 as against 9,573,590 in 1982.
The result of the elections to 138 seats were announced on March 24, 1987. The results of the other two seats, where elections were held on June 2, 1987, were announced on 3rd June. The LDF secured 78 seats ensuring a decisive majority in the House. The LDF secured 5,735,402 votes which form 44.97 per cent of the total valid votes. In 1982 they had got 4,523,288 votes, which constituted 47.24 per cent of the total valid votes. In the 1987 elections the CPM won 38 seats out of 70, the CPM Independents four out of nine, the CPI 16 out of 25 the CPI independent one out of one, the IC(S) six out of fourteen, the Janata seven out of twelve, the RSP five out of seven, and the Lok Dal one out of two. The number of votes secured by the LDF partners and its percentage are as follows:-
CPM-2,912,999 (22.84); CPM Ind.-366,446 (2.87); CPI-1,029,409 (8.07);
CPI Ind.-43,970 (0.34), IC (S)-511,777 (4.01); Janata 482,408 (3.78); RSP-310,004 (2.43); Lok Dal-78,389 (0.61).
In the 1987 elections the UDF secured 5,567,309 votes by contesting in 138 constituencies. (Two constituents of the UDF had given one seat each to the CMP).
It formed 43.65 per cent of the total valid votes. The INC got 33 seats out of 76, the IUML 15 out of 23, the KC (J) five out of 13, the KC (M) four out of 10, the NDP (P) one out of nine, the SRP (S) nil out of four, the RSP (S) nil out of one and the independents two out of two. The number of votes secured by the UDF constituents and percentage are as follows:- INC 3,164,259 (24.81); IUML 985,011 (7.72); KC (J) 450,472 (3.53); KC (M) 425,348 (3.33); NDP (P) 823,851 (2.23); SRP (S) 154,450 (1.21); RSP (S) 29,895 (0.23) and independents 74,023 (0.58). The UDF had secured an aggregate of 46,17,498 votes in 1982 which formed 48.23 per cent of the total valid votes.
The difference between the votes secured by the LDF and the UDF is 168,093.
The BJP-HM Front had fielded 127 candidates but, it could not win even a single seat. It secured 825,607 votes which constituted 6.47 per cent of the total valid votes. The 84 candidates of the CMP bagged 141,360 votes in all which formed 1.11 per cent of the total valid votes.
One independent candidate was returned by the Ettumannoor constituency where he could secure 41,098 votes. The other 764 independents bagged 443,899 votes which formed 3.48 per cent of the total valid votes.
Though 35 women candidates were in the fray, only eight were returned to the Assembly. Of the eight women members six are new faces.
In Trivandrum and Quilon districts the UDF could bag only one seat each whereas in some Malabar districts like Palghat, it could win more seats. The UDF could improve its position in that area by getting elected to the Assembly 32 members from districts north of Trichur which have 53 constituencies. The LDF found its contingent from this section reduced to 21. The BJP-HM combine which fielded candidates in 127 constituencies could secure deposits in six places only. Their candidates finished second in three constituencies pushing out two LDF candidates in Manjeswar and Kasaragod and one UDF candidate in Trivandrum
East. Only five Independents were able to get back their deposits. Out of the 84 candidates of the newly formed CMP only two could secure their deposits. All the thirteen candidates of the break-away NDP (G) and the seven nominees of the SRP (C) forfeited their deposits. Manjeswar is the only constituency where no candidate had to forfeit the deposits.
The SRP (S), the UDF ally, was wiped out in this election. The INC strength was reduced from 38 to 33, the IUML from 18 to 15, the Kerala Congress groups from 16 to nine and the NDP from four to one. The SRP, which drew a blank, had three members and the RSP (S) which had the same fate at the hustings had one member in the dissolved Assembly. The CPM which had only 26 members improved its position to 42 including four Independents of the party. CPI s tally rose from 12 to 17, the Janata s from four to seven and the RSP s from four to five. The Congress (S) maintained its position at six. The CMP which had four members
could get only one seat.
A five member ministry with Sri. E.K. Nayanar as the Chief Minister was sworn in on 26th march 1987. The remaining 14 members of the cabinet assumed office on April 2, 1987. The first session of the House was held on 28th march, with Smt. Bhargavi Thankappan on the chair as Pro-tem Speaker.
Shri. Varkala Radhakrishnan was elected Speaker and Smt. Bhargavi Thankappan Deputy Speaker. Shri M.P. Veerendrakumar of the Janata party resigned his ministership on 4th April 1987 in order to induct Prof. N.M. Joseph, as the nominee of the Janata Party in the Cabinet, who assumed office on 14th April, 1987.
Shri. T.K. Ramakrishnan was not a member of the House when he was appointed Minister for Co-operation. Later he was elected from the Kottayam constituency. Shri Nicholas Rodrigues was nominated to the Assembly to represent the Anglo-Indian community.
Assembly elections 1991
Elections to the ninth Loksabha were held on 22nd November 1989 in Kerala. In this election the UDF and the LDF were, as usual the main contesting fronts. But the Kerala Congress led by Shri. P.J. Joseph left the UDF and the leader himself contested the election from the Muvattupuzha constituency against the official UDF candidate. This started the drift between UDF and the Kerala Congress. As naturally the LDF encashed the situation in their favour and the doors were opened before the KC for an easy entry to the LDF. The allies of both the fronts remained the same except the inclusion of CMP to the UDF and the entry of KC as LDF partner. The elections to the Loksabha and assembly were scheduled to be held on May 23rd. The nation had suffered a great Tragedy in the death of Shri. Rajiv Gandhi, the former Prime Minister of the country at the assassins hands on 21st May 1991. Consequently the election commission of India postponed the election proceedings to 18th June. Of the 19657974 votes 14433354 exercised their franchise which constitute 73.46 precent of the electorate. The total number of valid votes came to 14186720.793 candidates were in the fray out of this 489 deposits forfeited .
Having won a majority the UDF formed its cabinet with Shri.K. Karunakaran as the Chief Minister on 24-6-1991. Later the Chief Minister had to leave for United States for medical treatment consequent on a road accident. A few communal issues flared up during his absence and there was a hue and cry for a change of leadership. Although Shri. Karunakaran retuned to the leadership, the clamour for change reached its crescendo with the ISRO spy scandal. This resulted in Shri. Karunakaran making an exit and Shri. A.K.Antony was sworn in as Chief Minister on 22-3-1995. Prohibition was the major political plank proposed by Shri. A.K. Antony. This was also made main issue for the next general elections held on 27-4-1996.
General Election 1996
Changes in the internal political scenario of the Kerala Congress surfaced in the last phase of the UDF ministry, Shri. T.M. Jaocb parted with the KC (M) and contested the next elections separately within the UDF. SRP and NDP disappeared as political entities, with the 1996 general elections. L.D.F. formed its ministry on 20-5-1996 under the leadership of Shri. E.K. Nayanar who was not an elected member of the assembly at that time. Later he was elected from Thalassery Constituency. As a measure of strengthening the process of decentralisation of power the number of ministers was reduced and a 14 member cabinet was sworn in.
2001 Elections
Election to the 11th assembly was held on May 10 ,2001 in which UDF got 99 seats and the 11th Kerala Assembly was sworn in to power on the 17th of May 2001 with Shri.A.K.Antony as Chief Minister. The cabinet comprised of 20 ministers. Mr. Vakkom Purushothaman was elected as speaker. Shri. Sundaran Nadar sworn in as Deputy Speaker. Sri.A.K.Antony rendered the resignation of his cabinet on August 29,2004. A five-member ministry under the Chief Ministership of Sri. Oommen Chandy assumed charge of office on August 31, 2004.

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Districts in kerala

Posted by keralaofficial on May 19, 2011


For administrative purposes the State is divided into 14 revenue districts. On the basis of geographical, historical and cultural similarities, the districts are generally grouped into North Kerala (Kasaragod, Kannur, Wayanad, Kozhikkod, Malappuram) , Central Kerala (Palakkad, Thrissur, Eranakulam, Idukki) and South Kerala (Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alappuzha, Pathanamthitta, Kottayam).The districts have the same name as the important town or city in the district, the exception being Wayanad district. The 14 districts are further divided into 62 taluks, 1453 revenue villages and 1007 Gram panchayats. Some of the districts and their towns were renamed in 1990 like Thiruvananthapuram (formerly known as Trivandrum), Kollam (Quilon), Alappuzha (Alleppey), Thrissur (Trichur or Thrishivaperur), Palakkad (Palghat), Kozhikode (Calicut) and Kannur (Cannanore).
A district is governed by a District Collector, who is an officer from Indian Administrative Service (IAS) of Kerala cadre and is appointed by the State Government of Kerala. Functionally the district administration is carried on through the various Departments of the State Government each of which has an office of its own in the district level. The District Collector is the executive leader of the district administration and the District Officers of the various Departments in the district render technical advice to him in the discharge of his duties. The District Collector is a key functionary of Government having large powers and responsibilities. He/she has a dual role to both as the agent of the Government of the state and also as the representative of the people in the district. He/she is also responsible for the maintenance of the law and order of the district.

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About Kerala

Posted by keralaofficial on May 19, 2011


Keralam, the land of kera or coconut, is a never-ending array of coconut palms…sun blanched beaches…kettuvallams over enchanting backwaters… magical monsoon showers…silent valleys vibrant with flora and fauna…misty mountains of the Western Ghats…fragrance of spices…evenings reverberating with the rhythm of a thousand artforms…fairs and festivals… Welcome to Kerala benign and beautiful!

Origin of Kerala has been linked to a legend dating back to Satya Yug. According to this legend, Kerala rose up from the sea when Lord Parasurama threw his axe into it and the sea receded to bring up this narrow strip of land from underneath. Lord Parasurama, believed to be the sixth avatar of Lord Mahavishnu, threw his axe from Gokarnam southward across the ocean in rage and in repentance for his actions of killing Kshatriyas. The land of Kerala emerged from the waters of the Arabian Sea with the blessing of Varuna-the God of Oceans and Bhumidevi- the Goddess of Earth. The sobriquet “God’s own Country” thus bestows itself on Kerala.

Kerala lies along the coastline, to the extreme south west of the Indian peninsula, flanked by the Arabian Sea on the west and the mountains of the Western Ghats on the east. This land of Parasurama stretches north-south along a coastline of 580 kms with a varying width of 35 to 120 kms. Cascading delicately down the hills to the coasts covered by verdant coconut groves, the topography and physical characteristics change distinctly from east to west. The nature of the terrain and its physical features, divides an east west cross section of the state into three distinct regions- hills and valleys, midland and plains and the coastal region. Located between north latitudes 8018′ and 12048′ and east longitudes 74052′ and 72022′, this land of eternal beauty encompasses 1.18 per cent of the country.

The Western Ghats, bordering the eastern boundary of the State, form an almost continuous mountain wall, except near Palakkad where there is a natural mountain pass known as the Palakkad Gap. The average elevation of the Ghats is about 1500 meters above sea level, occasionally soaring to peaks of 2000 to 2500 m. From the Ghats, the land slopes to the west on to the plains, into an unbroken coastline.

The strip of hills and valleys on the eastern edge, close to the Ghats, comprises of steep mountains and deep valleys, covered with dense forests. Almost all the rivers of the state originate here. There are 44 rivers in the state, of which 41 originate from the Western Ghats and flow towards west into the Arabian sea. Only three tributaries of the river Cauvery originate in Kerala and flow east into the neighbouring States. These rivers and streams flowing down from the Western Ghats either empty themselves in to the backwaters in the coastal area or directly into the Arabian Sea. As the Western Ghats are nowhere more than 120 kms from the sea, all these rivers are comparatively short.
In the Midland Plains of central region, the hills are not very steep and the valleys are wide. The valleys have been developed as paddy fields and the elevated lands and hill slopes are converted into estates of rubber, fruit trees and other cash crops like pepper , arecanut and tapioca. Tea and coffee estates have cropped up in the high ranges during the last two centuries.

The Coastal Belt strip is comparatively plain. Extensive paddy fields, thick groves of coconut trees and picturesque backwaters, interconnected with canals and rivers, are the features of this region. No wonder, Alappuzha an old sea port town of this region is known as the ‘Venice of the East’. In the southern and northern parts of the state, the coastal belt also has some small hillocks.

Backwaters & Rivers

The backwaters are a peculiar feature of the state. Canals link the lakes and backwaters to facilitate an uninterrupted inland water navigation system from Thiruvananthapuram to Vadakara, a distance of 450 kms. The Vembanad lake stretching from Alappuzha to Kochi is the biggest water body in the state and is over 200 sq.kms. in area. Kuttanad in Alappuzha district alone has more than 20 per cent of India’s total length of waterways.

The important rivers from north to south are; Valapattanam river (110 kms.), Chaliar (69 kms.), Kadalundipuzha (130 kms.), Bharathapuzha (209 kms.), Chalakudy river (130 kms.), Periyar (244 kms), Pamba (176 kms), Achancoil (128 kms.) and Kalladayar (121 kms.). Other than these, there are 35 more small rivers and rivulets flowing down from the Ghats. Most of these rivers are navigable up to the midland region, in country crafts.

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Government Institutions

Posted by keralaofficial on May 19, 2011


Besides Government Departments, the activities of Government of Kerala is spread over several other Government Institutions such as Commissions, Autonomous Bodies, Cultural Institutions, Public Sector Undertakings, Welfare Fund Boards, Co-operative Organisations, Development Authorities, Universities etc.

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Field Departments

Posted by keralaofficial on May 19, 2011


Department of Animal Husbandry
Department of Archaeology
Directorate of Ayurveda Medical Education
Department of Archives
Department of Civil Supplies
Department of Collegiate Education
Department of Town and Country Planning
Department of Chemical Examiner’s Lab
Department of Dairy Development
Directorate of Social Welfare
Department of Drugs Control
Department of Electrical Inspectorate
Department of Economics & Statistics
Department of Election
Department of Excise
Department of Employment Service
Directorate of Employment and Training
Department of Factories & Boilers
Department of Fire and Rescue Service
Department of Ground Water
Department of Harbour Engineering
Department of Higher Secondary Education
Department of Homoeopathy
Department of Industrial Training
Department of Indian Systems of Medicine
Department of Insurance
Department of Insurance Medical Services
Department of Kerala Agricultural Incometax & Sales Tax / KVAT Appellate Tribunal
Department of Kerala Police
Department of Labour
Department of Land Revenue
Land Use Board
Department of Legal Metrology
Department of Local Fund Audit
Department of Lotteries
Department of Urban Affairs
Department of Medical Education
Department of Mining & Geology
Department of Museums & Zoos
Department of Printing
Department of Prisons
Department of Port
Department of Panchayat
Department of Registration
Department of Rural Development
Department of Sainik Welfare
Department of Soil Survey
Directorate of Sports and Youth Affairs
Department of Survey and Land Records
Department of Technical Education
Department of Tourism
Department of Treasury
Department of Vocational Higher Secondary Education
Department of Water Transport
Department of Motor Vehicle
Department of Stationery

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Government Departments

Posted by keralaofficial on May 19, 2011


Government of Kerala has a secretariat of its own. It is the highest echelon of state administrative structure offering locus for the exercise of authority by state Government. The secretariat refers to the complex of departments. So the government departments are classified according to the functions defined: Secretariat departments and Field Departments.

Its political heads are ministers while the administrative heads are secretaries to the Government. The entire administrative machinery of the state is divided into several departments. This section profiles the various departments of the state. Details of each departments such as organisational structure, list and addresses of area wise offices, programmes, schemes, services, application forms with details, latest Government orders, achievements, success stories etc. are provided.

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